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Cycles

Knowledge Management is in fact an ongoing cyclical process that moves through each of these identified processes. To illustrate this, consider the following example:

At an informal meeting of sales staff, discussion is focusing on a particular large customer. Apparently there has been an organisational restructure in the customer company and new staff have been appointed. This knowledge was gathered when one of the sales staff visited the company

The knowledge cycle commences again as new tacit knowledge is developed and new business opportunities are identified and acted

How organisations learn

This concept of ongoing knowledge development is central to the idea that organisations can 'learn'. When someone asks 'why do we do that', a common reply is 'because we always have'. This response is based on embedded procedures and processes. These procedures and processes may have developed over a period of time, and may even have developed from the codifying of tacit knowledge into explicit procedure. However, without the ability to change and adapt, the organisation will continue to apply the old procedures, even though the process may no longer be of value to the organisation and its strategic direction.

For example one process of competitor analysis could be the monitoring of key competitors through newspaper reports. Traditionally an organisation may have in place an internal procedure of someone manually scanning the newspapers and cutting relevant articles for distribution to key staff. This could continue as an established procedure, when in fact it could be better to purchase a commercial newspaper clipping service that will scan print and electronic news feeds for you.

Re: Knowledge Cycles by infomaninfoman, 10 Sep 2007 23:40

Technology is not knowledge management

The need to capture knowledge and to store it for later access and use means that technology plays an important part within knowledge management processes. However, it should be noted that technology is not knowledge management.

Many technologies are being used to assist in the development of infrastructure for capturing explicit knowledge. Such technology includes the development of intranets, the use of electronic work tools such as groupware and the development of database structures for data warehousing. These technologies must be seen as being support technologies that form part of the knowledge management process and not the total solution to knowledge management.

Communities of practice

Communities of practice are increasingly recognised as an important aspect of knowledge management for industry and enterprises. Consider the example of a community of practice among winegrowers.

Within a single organisational setting, the acknowledgement of communities of practice is important, although they can often be difficult to establish. A community of practice is usually an informal process that establishes itself on the need to share knowledge, not necessarily as a means to reach a particular goal or outcome. An example of this could be different researchers meeting regularly across a university. This regular meeting would be based on similarities of their research interest. The meeting could be a formal or informal process, but it allows them to discuss their interests and share ideas or current research findings. The outcome of the community of practice is the actual knowledge sharing. This knowledge sharing can then be brought back to their individual faculties or research centres and incorporated into their ongoing research. More formal outcomes could be the establishing of a new team to address a specific research question or research submission.

What is knowledge management?

Knowledge management is not a solution in itself, but rather it complements and enhances other organisational initiatives in total quality management and business process re-engineering, in order to make better use of the know how and expertise available within the company.
It is a two-fold process:

* management of knowledge assets; and
* management of processes for creating, organising, transferring and sharing knowledge throughout the organisation.

Knowledge Management is the development of processes to link knowledge requirements to business strategies, as well as to plan for, generate, represent and provide access to individual and organisational knowledge.

Explicit, tacit and cultural knowledge

Explicit

Explicit knowledge is that which has been recorded and often consists of written text, reports, documents, databases and websites. Explicit knowledge has been 'codified' and can be classified through a database, website listing or other means of access. Explicit knowledge could be the sales database for a company; the procedures manual or the induction manual.

Tacit

Tacit knowledge is that which resides in individual's memories. It reflects our personal experience and the 'know how' that we have developed because of this experience. The sales person may have the factual sales / order information about a customer (that is the explicit knowledge), but may also know that a particular customer needs to be treated as 'special' because of the customer's personality traits.

Cultural

Cultural knowledge is an awareness of the organisational culture that exists within a company. "An organisation's cultural knowledge consists of the beliefs it holds to be true based on experience, observation, and reflection about itself and its environment." (Choo 2002).

What is Knowledge Management?

“Knowledge Management” explores the processes that can lead an organisation to identify, capture and manage its knowledge capital. We need to differentiate between “Information Management” and “Knowledge Management”. This course has set the foundations for information management by introducing issues associated with the:

* Understanding of information needs
* Understanding of information resources
* Understanding of information access

Information versus Knowledge

* Information is usually recorded, stored and published
* Knowledge, while it can be recorded, also includes interpretation and understanding that resides with individuals

Benefits of Knowledge Management

* it directs decisions on where, how and when to build, create, accumulate and account for new knowledge;
* it allows organisations to account for key assets including education, training and off-the-job experience. These are often the largest costs in firms and this expenditure is seldom quantified or tracked, nor is there always accountability for it;
* knowledge management improves protection for intellectual property;
* knowledge management increases competitive advantage and allows for the identification of gaps in organisational knowledge and the formalisation of plans to fill them;
* knowledge management provides greater adaptability and flexibility, with the potential for innovative solutions and cross-functional operations;
* knowledge management provides a higher return on human capital investments;
* knowledge management retains and adds value to an organisation’s products and services.

Products and markets

  • IBISWorld
  • The Global Market Information Database (GMID)

Legal and regulatory frameworks

  • Administrative/legal : Relevant Commonwealth legislation: Bankruptcy Act; Corporations Act;Relevant Victorian legislation: Environment Protection (Prescribed Waste) Act; Dangerous Goods (Storage and Handling) Regulation; Public Holidays and Shop Trading Reform Act
  • Financial :Relevant Commonwealth legislation : A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act; Pay-roll Tax Assessment Act; Customs Act; Quarantine Act
  • Industrial relations :Relevant Commonwealth legislation : Workplace Relations Act;Relevant Victorian legislation : Occupational Health and Safety (Manual Handling) Regulation; Occupational Health and Safety (Noise) Regulation; various Equal Opportunity Acts
  • Trade practices
  • Consumer rights

Standards
Business news

  • Company-specific news
  • Industry-specific news
  • General business news

Factiva

“ In today’s competitive commercial world, organisations of all kinds and sizes need access to an ongoing supply of up-to-date business information about the environment in which they operate. This is as true for public organisations, which are increasingly required to demonstrate their public accountability, as it is for private enterprises that are responsible to their shareholders. It applies equally to multinational corporations, that have commercial interests in a diverse range of products, and to cottage industries that offer boutique products to select markets. It is as relevant to manufacturers of products as it is to suppliers of trade or professional services.”
Jane Ponting. Business information on the Internet. Melbourne, Informit

Internal environment

The internal environment of a business consists of the factors for which the business is itself responsible – hiring, personnel, ensuring an appropriate skills mix to support the business, provision of suitable materials and equipment, marketing the product or service, and of course administration and management of all of these.

External environment

The external environment of a business can include many factors which sit outside it, and over which it has little or no control

The Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC)
Business Who's Who of Australia
Company websites

Identifying information

One of the most difficult tasks in an organisation is to identify the information that it needs, whether to solve a problem, investigate the current situation, initiate a process or educate staff. An understanding of the context of the problem and what information is available both inside and outside the organisation is required. While external information resources are often fairly well codified and known, the information resources within an organisation are often not well known.

Of importance to Knowledge Management is the idea of Expertise Databases. These are listings which contain an employee directory with staff biographies and photographs, areas of expertise, client experience and a client database (past and present clients), and the work the firm has done for them. A more sophisticated expertise database might be a more dynamic product which allows the development of communities of practice between remote members of an organisation involving communication of ideas, knowledge and practice. Some organisations that operate on a global level use a number of these kinds of tools to share knowledge and ideas and to make sure that the most appropriate information is available to all employees.
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Acquiring information

There are a number of ways of acquiring or capturing information in an organisation. Internal information is created either as a by-product of the business processes or is more directly created through the accumulation of material about customers, orders and sales. Information is also acquired by buying in selected material e.g. research material on products, markets, competitors, innovations, new products and industries.

The processes involved for acquiring information this way include scanning the environment and using both automated and human centred approaches. Scanning can produce filtered information for users either as structured information from recognised sources, e.g. published works – books, web pages, article, conference papers, market reports, statistical surveys, or from recognised authorities either individuals or institutions. Information is also generated as a result of the informal interactions between employees and groups within the organisation.
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Organising information

Once the data or information is acquired or created, it needs to be organised so that users can have access to it. In some organisations, libraries exist for this purpose. More often these days, as well as libraries and information centres, organisations have knowledge repositories which can be distributed systems rather than static places. The process of organising information involves cataloguing – describing the information using a set of descriptors that are listed and known to all the users.

This information includes:

* who wrote / created the information,
* publisher or copyright owner,
* when it was published / created,
* the title / name / listing.

Classifying the information involves grouping information into like categories so that all the information about a certain subject can be accessed at the same time. Assigning subject headings to the groups allows for easer access (see material on Taxonomies, Thesauri).
The procedures used in a library for classifying and cataloging information so that people can find it and use it are a useful metaphor for the information and data stored and organised in an organisation. Consider the access to electronic information environments that are the norm for most organisations.

A search engine or a browser could then use all this metadata to refine the display of search results. Some search engines do this. For instance AltaVista uses the data contained in the description element to display in the results list instead of the first few lines of text on the webpage. This often makes much more sense to the person trying to read the list of results, especially when the first few lines of text from a page are just a list of headings and not really meant to be read as a sentence.

Most large search engines such as Google and Alta Vista do not use the DC metadata element set as a way of searching for web pages as there are still not many web pages on the web that actually have metadata built into them.

This happens for two reasons. First, people who build web pages often have technical skills but not information management skills and therefore do not know about metadata. So the search engine companies are not going to invest a lot of money into making their search engines search for metadata until more people put it into their pages. Secondly, people think it is not worth the effort of putting metadata into their pages if the search engines do not go looking for it. This is a classic chicken and egg problem. It is unlikely to be solved while the web as a whole is the free and easy place that it currently is.

The problem becomes much less difficult when it is constrained to a single organisation. It is much easier for a particular organisation to say to all the people who are going to contribute pages to the organisational website that they have to use metadata. Then a search engine that is limited to searching that particular site can be configured to look for a certain schema of metadata elements in every page. This allows the website search engine to act much more like a library catalogue.

The same sort of decision can be made by a particular sector or industry. This has happened in Australia with regard to Australian government electronic publications. Every website put up by every government department in Australia has to use a metadata schema called AGLS.

AGLS (Australian Government Locator Service) is a metadata schema based on the Dublin Core schema but with four extra elements. The four extra elements

he problem of language – classification, taxonomies and thesauri
One of the most significant issues for information and knowledge managers to deal with is the problem of language. Words are complex things. People use words in all sorts of different ways. Sometimes people use the same words to mean different things and sometimes people use different words to mean the same thing.

If you look up the word ‘stress’ on a search engine you may find items relating to:

* The stress placed on a beam by forces acting on it (engineering);
The stress of living in a fast-paced chaotic environment (psychology or biology);
* The stress placed on a word when uttered with emphasis (linguistics).

It would be nice if you could be sure which of these you were looking for and which you were getting back in your search results. Different sections of organisations sometimes use language differently. For example, consider - what is 'a customer'? A large retail business may have slightly different definitions of 'a customer':

* On the shop floor a customer may be anyone who walks in the door, whether they actually buy anything or not;
* For the accounting department a customer may be someone who actually pays money for a product;
* For the marketing department a customer may be someone who has an account with the business and therefore whose address is known.

This means that when the different sections of the business report on customers then they may not be reporting on exactly the same thing. If the information manager in the organisation is not keeping track of these differences and allowing for their use in the various reporting activities, then the business could be led into making incorrect decisions.

This illustrates how the definition of one word can cause a problem. In fact it is often these apparently small differences that can cause the biggest problems. When people use quite different words, or have quite different meanings for the same words, then it is usually obvious to everyone involved in the communication that something does not quite match. In that case usually someone will ask for clarification of what is being said and the problem can be sorted out. But when the differences are very small, as they are in the above retail business example, then it is easy for people to overlook the differences and assume that they are talking about the same things when they are not. In this case the problem does not get sorted out and mistakes occur.

For nearly all words the same sorts of problems apply. This ambiguity is one of the aspects that make language interesting and fun. Many jokes would not be possible if such ambiguity did not exist. But for information management purposes it is a problem. The problem arises because when we are searching for information we are really looking for something based on a concept or idea that we have in mind. But the only way we have of expressing that concept or idea is with words. Yet words and concepts are not quite the same thing.

One of the tools that information and knowledge managers use to try and control this ambiguity of language is a taxonomy or thesaurus.

Taxonomy, or thesaurus
A taxonomy, or thesaurus, is a list of approved words and their meanings and relationships. For instance, a taxonomy may define exactly what the word ‘customer’ means in the retail business above. It may break the term customer down into specific types of customers and give rules as to when those more specific types are to be used.

A knowledge manager will often be required to develop a taxonomy or thesaurus of terms used by an organisation so that everyone in the organisation can use the agreed meanings. This is a way around the problem of slightly different meanings being used by different units of the organisation.

Taxonomies are useful in many different situations. On websites they are useful to ensure that the words used for links and other navigation cues match the expectations of the users. In databases they can be useful to ensure that data entry is consistent when different people are entering data into the same field at different sites or times.

In metadata they are almost essential. If you consider the DC subject metadata elements mentioned in the section above there is an obvious problem. Although the DCMI says that the subject of the webpage should be put in to this element it does not tell us what words should be used to express that subject. There are too many possibilities for the DCMI to cover so they leave it up to each person or organisation filling in the metadata to devise a set of rules that are appropriate for their own situation. Thesauri and taxonomies are those rules. They are often used in constrained situations in order to help people know what words they should be using in this metadata element.

For instance, if you are writing a webpage about a type of wolf known as the timber wolf should you put the subject in the metadata as ‘wolf’, ‘wolves’, ‘timber wolf’, ‘timber wolves’, ‘timber-wolf’, ‘timber-wolves’, or ‘lupus’? (Lupus is the scientific name for wolves). There is no right answer to this problem for all situations. But if you work for a zoo, and the zoo has a thesaurus that you can use to check which you should use, then it will be much easier to enter the metadata. It will also be much easier for someone else to come along later and find the webpage if they have access to the thesaurus too.

It would be even better of course if the thesaurus was built into the search engine on the website and, no matter which of the terms the person searched under, the search engine always pointed them to the right one and to the webpage. Taxonomies and thesauri are sometimes built into search engines in just this manner specifically to allow for searchers to use whatever words they happen to think of to search under. The search engine will still take them to the correct term used in the taxonomy or thesaurus.

Developing a taxonomy or thesaurus takes a lot of work. There are two major reasons why this is the case. First, the work of finding out all the words used and their exact meanings and the relationships between them is a slow and intellectually challenging business. Secondly, there is the politically charged work of deciding whose meaning will be used and whose will not be used. How will the organisation be affected if some sections of the organisation are not able to continue to use the language as they have been? Being too prescriptive can be counterproductive if sections of the organisation will refuse to use the taxonomy at all. Being too laissez-faire can be counterproductive in that even if the people do use it there is little benefit gained.

Storing information
In most organisational environments the storage of information and data is now done electronically, mainly in large database systems. The manner of the storage will depend on the organisation and how well they manage and perceive their information assets. back to the top

Disseminating and using information

Connecting users with the information they need is one of the most crucial processes in any organisation. Creating a culture of information sharing is part of this connecting and an integral part of creating an intelligent organisation. The information strategies employed by an organisation are usually a mixture of human and computer generated. Computer generated information appears to offer more timely delivery of information and sophisticated delivery strategies can tailor information rapidly. The development of Knowledge Management and Content Management Systems stems from this need to disseminated information in a timely and appropriate manner. The development of large Web-based information management systems in organisations has led to the proliferation of Content Management Systems in order to control the large amount of information an organisation uses to function productively.

Underlying the use and dissemination is an evaluation of the end product and the processes. Questions include:

* What information did I use and was it appropriate?
* What else do I need?
* How do I share the results of this work?
* How was information accessed?

If there is an information sharing culture in place, then it will be easy to store and share the information and knowledge generated from any particular project.

The process approach to information management sets an information rich culture with appropriate mechanisms for information sharing and the building of knowledge in an organisation. Development of these processes in a particular environment using a vast array of information technology precuts specifically developed for many different contexts.

While these IT products offer many services and options, some idea of what the business uses and needs for information resources, access, dissemination and specific knowledge is important as a first step.

The Information Auditing procedures described in the next Topic will help in the development of these elements.

My answer is that their real solutions came from a second set of documentation-notes they carried with them detailing what they'd learned.

Any opinion?

Which company is the ultimate owner of Arnott's Biscuits?
***********
To answer this question, i start searching for information about "Arnott' Biscuits" on google
===========================================
Arnott's Australia: There is no substitute for qualityArnott's Australia is internationally known for production of biscuits such as Tim Tams, SAO, Milk Arrowroot Biscuits and Tiny Teddies.
www.arnotts.com.au/ - 9k - Đã lưu trong bộ nhớ cache - Các trang tương tự

Our Products - www.arnotts.com.au/ourproducts.aspx
Corporate Profile - www.arnotts.com.au/corporateprofile.aspx
Recipes - www.arnotts.com.au/recipes.aspx
Product Search - www.arnotts.com.au/productsearch.aspx
Các kết quả khác từ www.arnotts.com.au »

Arnott's - There is no substitute for qualityThe chocolate used to make Tim Tam biscuits has been specially developed by … 2005 Arnott's Biscuits Limited ACN 008 435 729; A message from our LEGAL …
www.arnotts.com.au/products/TimTam.aspx - 17k - Đã lưu trong bộ nhớ cache - Các trang tương tự

Arnott's Biscuits Holdings - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe history of Arnott's Biscuits begins in 1865, when Scottish immigrant William Arnott opened a bakery on Hunter Street, Newcastle, providing biscuits and …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnott's_Biscuits_Holdings - 32k - Đã lưu trong bộ nhớ cache - Các trang tương tự
===========================================
It appeares that Arnott's Biscuits is an Australian company ( www.arnotts.com.au/ )
Going to company website, i found the profile of company on http://www.arnotts.com.au/corporateprofile.aspx This doesn't appeare the owners of Arnott's Biscuits. I tried "Arnott' Biscuits owner", results:
===========================================
http://www.linkedin.com/pub/dir/Mark/Nolan?trk=ppro_find_others
Name Location & Industry
• Australia
• Consumer Goods Mark Nolan
AMS Manager at Arnott's Biscuits
View full profile | Contact Mark Nolan

Currently: AMS Manager at Arnott's Biscuits
==========================================

In one articles, i found information about the owner on:
http://www.smh.com.au/news/New-South-Wales/Morpeth/2005/02/17/1108500197681.html
"The owner is the great-great-great grandson of William Arnott and is not connected with the new owner's of Arnott Biscuits which is the Campbell Soup Co. (USA)."

s3146272 - CUONG

To find the former name of "John Thompson Engineering Ltd.", first of all i tried at google.com by typing "John Thompson Engineering Ltd. owner", The results came first with :

==============================================================
LinkedIn DirectoryJohn Thompson. Engineer. • US: Greensboro/Winston-Salem, North Carolina Area • insurance … John Thompson. Owner, JWT System Services Ltd …
www.linkedin.com/find/t/t46/t46_7.html - 15k - Đã lưu trong bộ nhớ cache - Các trang tương tự

LinkedIn: John Thompson: DirectoryJohn Thompson. Principal Engineer at Proxix Solutions, Inc. View full profile | Contact John Thompson …. John Thompson. Owner at JWT System Services Ltd …
www.linkedin.com/pub/dir/John/Thompson?trk=ppro_find_others - 268k - Đã lưu trong bộ nhớ cache - Các trang tương tự
[ Các kết quả khác từ www.linkedin.com ]


This is a website for seaching profile of people named Thompson. It doesn't satisty with my search. The rest result on google with that term gave no results. The reason can be the wrong method of searching. Searching on www.google.com.vn so it gave out the result internationally, mostly from the US. The topic provided information about "John Thompson Engineering Ltd." that it is an Australian company, so i tried with more specific term "John Thompson Engineering Ltd. Australia". Results:


John Thompson (Australia) Pty Ltd - Australian Science at Work …In 2002 the power and water engineering consultants, Burns and Roe Worley (BRW) acquired John Thompson Australia (JTA) from Rolls-Royce Australia Ltd. …
www.austehc.unimelb.edu.au/asaw/biogs/A001166b.htm - 8k - Đã lưu trong bộ nhớ cache - Các trang tương tự

JOHN THOMPSONJohn Thompson (Australia) Ltd John Thompson Combustion Engineering Pty. Ltd. (Australia) John Thompson Wolverhampton (India) Ltd …
www.localhistory.scit.wlv.ac.uk/Museum/Engineering/JohnThompson/johnthompson05.htm - 17k - Đã lưu trong bộ nhớ cache - Các trang tương tự

Burns and Roe - Related Articles - Burns and Roe Worley Acquires …John Thompson Australia has been successfully trading in the Asia Pacific … Burns and Roe Worley and John Thompson Engineering Pty Ltd will continue to …
www.roe.com/news_article.asp?ArticleID=65 - 19k - Đã lưu trong bộ nhớ cache - Các trang tương tự
==============================================================

It seems the results work out that i found the information about "John Thompson Engineering Ltd." in Australia:

==============================================================
Australian Science at Work
Corporate entry

Home | Browse | Search | Previous | Next


John Thompson (Australia) Pty Ltd (1924 - )
Online Sources

Function: Engineering Industry
Location: Crows Nest, New South Wales, Australia
John Thompson (Australia) Pty Ltd was established in 1924. The company consisted of engineering contractors and boilermakers. In 2002 the power and water engineering consultants, Burns and Roe Worley (BRW) acquired John Thompson Australia (JTA) from Rolls-Royce Australia Ltd.


Details
Location: Crows Nest, New South Wales
==============================================================

Now i need to find the owner of "John Thompson Engineering Ltd." by searching "John Thompson Engineering Ltd. Australia owner", first results came out with not what i expected, but as far as i rolled down, it seems information i need is there:

==============================================================

Previous Inquiries - Economic Development Committee - Parliament …Mr X. Thompson, Thompson’s Carpet Choice. Mr D. Nicel, Euroa Clay Products Pty Ltd. Mr S. McKernan, McKernan’s Engineering. …
www.parliament.vic.gov.au/edic/inquiries/WorkCover/transcripts.html - 33k - Đã lưu trong bộ nhớ cache - Các trang tương tự

[PDF] TRADE MARKS ACT 1995 DECISION OF A DELEGATE OF THE REGISTRAR OF …Định Dạng Tệp Tin+D497: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Xem dạng HTML
The evidence in answer comprises declarations by Robert John Thompson, … attorney), neither Garasill nor RPR [RP Rural Engineering Pty Ltd - Mr Thompson's …
www.ipaustralia.gov.au/pdfs/trademarks/hearings/723668.pdf - Các trang tương tự

==============================================================
It seems coming out good results from :
http://www.zoominfo.com/people/level2page39963.aspx
This page gave a lots information about "Thompson, John" in many industry, but as far as i seach for "John Thompson Engineering", there's no good results.

I tried on live.com :

==============================================================
John Thompson Engineering Ltd australiaPage 1 of 80,922 results ·Options ·AdvancedResults
JOHN THOMPSON
John Thompson Combustion Engineering Pty. Ltd. (Australia) John Thompson Wolverhampton (India) Ltd John Thompson (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd. John Thompson do Brasil Limtada.

www.localhistory.scit.wlv.ac.uk/Museum/Engineering/JohnThompson/johnthompson05.htm · Cached page
Burns and Roe - Related Articles - Burns and Roe Worley Acquires …
… owned subsidiaries, Burns and Roe Worley, has acquired John Thompson Australia (JTA) from Rolls-Royce Australia Ltd for an undisclosed sum. The new company will operate as John Thompson Engineering …

www.roe.com/news_article.asp?ArticleID=65 · Cached page
Thompson Consulting Engineers - Curriculum Vitae
Director - Thompson Consulting Engineers Pty Ltd Qualifications And Affiliations. Bachelor of Engineering (Civil … of Institute of Municipal Engineering Australia … John Lutvey Senior Experienced …

www.thompson-consulting.com.au/cvs.html · Cached page
AllType Engineering Perth Western Australia Engineering Services …
… business currently owned by Exceleng Corporation Pty Ltd … Value $0.6m. 2003, John Thompson, Harding Dam WTP – Shop … Value $1.45m. 2006, John Thomson Engineering, Shop fabrication and site …

www.alltypeengineering.com.au/profile.html · Cached page
==============================================================

It gave out results about the company but no former names of it.

Same results with yahoo.com and aol.com

s3146272 - CUONG

knowledge management is:
Managing

  • what is known
  • How well it is known
  • Who knows it
  • How it is applied
  • How it can be leveraged and used

Organizational Knowledge: Explicit

  • Recorded, consisting of written text, reports, documents, databases, and websites.
  • Codified and can be classified through a database, website listing or other means of access.
  • Rule-based or object-based.
  • Using symbols, explicit knowledge can be easily communicated between groups or individuals.

Examples: sales database for a company, the procedures manual, or the induction manual.

Organizational Knowledge: Tacit

  • Resides in individual’s memories.
  • Built from personal experience and know-how from experience.
  • Also values, ideas, bias, preconceptions, assumptions, believes, habits, etc.
  • Expressed through action-based skills.
  • If captured, the knowledge is no longer tacit.

The sales person may have the factual sales/order information about a customer (that is the explicit knowledge), but may also know that a particular customer needs to be treated as 'special' because of the customer's personality traits (that is tacit knowledge).

Organizational Knowledge

  • Three types of organizational knowledge are interdependent and work together.
  • The more integrated the three types of knowledge are, the more unique the organizational knowledge will be, and the more effective the results.

Sharing Knowledge

  • Necessary for the organization to develop and benefit from its knowledge base.
  • Explicit knowledge is recorded and obvious to the user, yet the process (policies, infrastructure, procedures, etc) to access this type of knowledge must still be managed.
  • Tacit knowledge is difficult to capture, and if captured, some is lost in the transfer. Tacit becomes explicit.
Knowledge Cycles by infomaninfoman, 04 Aug 2007 08:50

Types of Searches
Search Engines: Google, Ask.com, Gigablast, Wisenut.com, Hotbot,…
Subject Directories: Looksmart, Informine, About.com,…
Meta Searches: Dogpile, Metacrawler, Webcrawler, Ixquick, Vivisimo, Guidebeam,…
Searchable Databases – many not accessible from the WWW (Examples: http://www.cyndislist.com/database.htm and http://univ.cc/ ), Factiva, GMID, Hoover’s Online, …

Search Engines: Extremely specific searches with Keyword.
Very large databases – possibly irrelevant results.
Best for very targeted or obscure topics, multi-concept queries and searches for specific people, sites, etc.
No evaluation criteria – quality?

Subject Directories: good for broader searches or topic-based research.
Smaller databases => fewer results often more relevant.
Some have selection criteria for choosing sites to include.
Some provide quality ratings for sites.
Good for browsing through resources on a particular topic.
If you have a research project, or need to explore an idea, event, subject area, proposition, phenomenon, etc., directories are a good place to begin.

Online Databases
Much more structured and controlled.
Membership fee.
Can often be found over the WWW but requires members to log on.
they are usually not reached by either search engines or search directories.
More to come later on.

Search Techniques: Complex/Advanced Features
ALL OF THE WORDS: when all the words must be there to describe your query e.g. sharks, attacks, Bondi.
EXACT PHRASE: when a specific phrase is required, e.g. Bondi Beach Hotel. Especially useful for names of people, e.g. John Howard.
AT LEAST ONE OF THE WORDS: when you may be interested to find out about a range of things, e.g. sharks, stingrays, jellyfish, or when several different words may describe the same (or very similar) idea, e.g. attacks, fatalities, accidents.
WITHOUT THE WORDS: when you specifically wish to exclude a word or words which would change the context of your query, e.g. cronulla (exclude references to the Cronulla Sharks Rugby League club from your search on sharks).
From BB

Searching Methods by infomaninfoman, 04 Aug 2007 08:49

The Importance of Information Audits
Allows the company to generate:

  1. A knowledge base that can be re-used.
  2. A knowledge base that can set strategy.
  3. A knowledge base that can identify future directions and new opportunities.

Benefits of an Information Audit:
Make

  1. better use of intellectual assets.
  2. Make better use of external information.
  3. Avoid inconsistencies and duplication.
  4. Help to make business processes more effective.
  5. Improvement of information flows.
  6. Avoid information overload.
  7. Save real time and money through efficiencies.
  8. Gain a better awareness of information as an asset.
  9. Be more creative and innovative.

10 Key Aims of an Information Audit
Identify

  1. what info is created.
  2. Identify who creates this info.
  3. In what format is the info created.
  4. Who authorises the info.
  5. Who uses the info.
  6. How is the info used (purpose).
  7. Where & how is the info stored.
  8. Who maintains/updates the info.
  9. What gaps are there in the info need.
  10. What info management duplication is there.
Information Auditing by infomaninfoman, 04 Aug 2007 08:48
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